"The Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change" excerpt from “Why Transformation Efforts Fail" by Kotter, Harvard Business Review #IT #ChangeManagement

The Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change



1.    Establishing a Sense of Urgency

Ø  Examining the market and competitive realities

Ø  Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities


2.    Creating the Guiding Coalition

Ø  Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change

Ø  Getting the group to work together like a team


3.    Developing a Vision and Strategy

Ø  Creating a vision to help direct the change effort

Ø  Developing strategies for achieving that vision


4.    Communicating the Change Vision

Ø  Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies

Ø  Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees


5.    Empowering Broad-Based Action

Ø  Getting rid of obstacles

Ø  Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision

Ø  Encouraging risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities, and actions


6.    Generating Short-Term Wins

Ø  Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins”

Ø  Creating those wins

Ø  Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made the wins possible


7.    Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change

Ø  Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures, and policies that don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation vision

Ø  Hiring, promoting, and developing people who can implement the change vision

Ø  Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes, and change agents


8.    Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture

Ø  Creating better performance through customer-and productivity-oriented behavior, more and better leadership, and more effective management

Ø  Articulating the connections between new behaviors and organizational success

Ø  Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession



Source: John P. Kotter, “Why Transformation Efforts Fail,” Harvard Business Review (March-April 1995)